Gayblack Canadian Man

Foreign Policy Analysis

Missouri Government and Politics: Lecture 4 – General Assembly

– Although the primary
job of any legislature, like Missouri’s General
Assembly, is to make laws, that is certainly not all
that they do or have done. Prior to the adoption
of the 17th Amendment in direct election of
the United State Senators that the General Assembly
was responsible for selecting Missouri’s Senators. Because some recent candidates
for office have suggested returning this job to the Legislature, I thought it might be
worthwhile to take a look back at the 1905 selection of
Missouri’s US Senator. As the fateful hour for
adjournment drew near, still no Senator had been chosen. Down the aisle trooped a
deputation of republicans carrying a ladder. Their target was the clock,
which as long as it kept ticking, told the
assembled legislators that time was running out. Halfway to the clock,
they were challenged by a contingent of democrats. Overran desks with
books and papers flying, documents were trampled,
furniture was wrecked, fists flew, bodies struck the floor, and the ladder was thrown out a window. Suddenly, perhaps with a
book on legal propriety, someone made a bullseye on the clock. The glass shattered but the
pendulum, like the fists, kept swinging. On the rostrum, the presiding
officer ducked for his life. On came a (mumbles), ink
bottles, all aimed at that pendulum. Eventually one bottle struck its mark and time stopped. The bruised and bleeding
lawmakers tended their wounds and settled down to elect
Major William Warner to the US Senate, the first
republican in decades. (exciting fun music) Well, welcome back everybody. Thank you for coming today. We’re pretty much done
with the Constitutional and the ideological discussion
of Missouri’s politics, and we wanna move into
what most people consider the nuts and bolts of government, the institutional discussion. And so, over the next series of lectures, we’re gonna talk about the legislature. Today we’re gonna start
with the General Assembly, but we’re also gonna talk
about the executive branch and the judicial branch. But if you think about that
political science 101 class, your American government class, most of the time we spent
was on the institutions. And so, that’s the part of the class that we’re moving to today. But before we get started, as always, do we have any questions
about what we talked about last time? Richard? No, I’m sorry. These actually aren’t new glasses, these are my old glasses. I sat on them, it’s kind of embarrassing. But I sat on my other glasses, so while those are getting fixed, I had to go back to my old glasses. So, if I miss your asking
questions or something, just let me know. Besides the glasses question? Okay, and if you didn’t notice, we have a new camera crew today. We have Drew Mitman with us today. Our regular camera crew, Andy and Evan, are actually at the
Sundance Film Festival. They have a documentary
that’s under consideration at Sundance Film Festival. So I know, like me, you
wish them very well. But let’s talk about the institutions and today, talk about
the General Assembly. Talking about the legislative process, mainly just the overview
of the legislature itself. Now, in Missouri, the
legislature is referred to as the General Assembly. So, mainly what I wanna talk
about is the differences between the Missouri House
and the Missouri Senate. And as we talked about
with the Constitution, the best way for you
to learn this material is to learn across. We spend a lot of time on
that with the Constitution, with the six parts of the Constitution and going across to the US and
then talking about Missouri. You should learn this
material the same way. Instead of memorizing down,
and then coming across and going down, you should
try to learn at least the opening material across. So, right away, Missouri’s
General Assembly is divided into a House and a Senate. That means the Missouri
General Assembly is bi-cameral, it has two houses. Now, does anybody know
which legislature in the United States is
unicameral, only one house? Paul, no? Nebraska, Nebraska is a
unicameral legislature, no House and Senate, just one legislature. So, Missouri is just
like the United States, divided into the House and the Senate. And I wanna start with
talking about elections in the House and the Senate,
and then I wanna talk about leadership in the House and the Senate. And then I’m gonna talk about the makeup of the House and the Senate. How the House and the
Senate actually look, in terms of demographic information. So, let’s just start
with the simple stuff. The House is an election every two years. So, that makes it look just
like the United States House. ON the Senate side, the
election is every four years. Now, this is a classic
trick question because the Missouri Senate is
elected every four years and the United States Senate
is elected every six years. And so, ordinarily this question is asked, how many years does a
Missouri Senator serve? And the first choice is A, six, and you always jump to it because that’s what you learn about the US. So, it’s important to remember
two years from the House and four years for the Senate. But like the US Senate, the Missouri House, excuse
me, the Missouri Senate terms are staggered. So, in the House every two years, everybody’s up for reelection. In the Senate, it’s
staggered half and half. So, the even number districts
are elected this time and the odd number districts
are elected that time, next time, so that you don’t
have everybody in the Senate overturned at the same time. So, two years and four years,
that’s basic information. The second thing that you need to remember is how old do you have to be. The qualifications for
being a member of the House is 24 years. On the Senate side, it’s 30. So that, again, makes it very
similar to the United States, the different age, and as
we talked about in your American Government class,
age brings maturity, age brings wisdom, age brings more taxes, you have more responsibility, with respect to your role in government. So, it’s a very simple, you know, again, remember across, 24 and 30. But I wanna stop just for
a second on the Missouri House side because
there’s a very interesting court cases, Stiles versus Blunt in 1990. And I want you to think
about this for just a second because the issue in
Stiles versus Blunt was the age requirement in
the Missouri Constitution for serving in the House. Mr. Stiles argued that he
was, in fact, 24 years old if you calculated his
age based on the date of his conception. (laughing) Joni, I know people laugh
but I want you think about this issue a little bit more. This is not necessarily
a hot cup of coffee in your lap at McDonald’s. What’s at the heart of this lawsuit? If you can think about Missouri politics, and we’ll talk about
this a little bit later, think about Missouri’s recent history, what’s the issue here? Why would someone sue
the Secretary of State for denying access to the ballot? Age based on birth versus age
based on date of conception. Is it just some smart guy that
wants to get on the ballot? Well, if you think about it, what’s one of the most
important social issues in Missouri in the last 20 years? John? Abortion. And how has Missouri
responded to abortion, decisions by the United
States Supreme Court? If you think about Missouri,
as we talked about before, Missouri is a conservative state. When does life begin? In Missouri, life begins at conception. And if that was at the heart
of Stiles versus Blunt, not necessarily a frivolous lawsuit, but a lawsuit designed to make a point, and that point was life
begins at conception. Now, that case went to the 8th
Circuit of the United States. The United States 8th Circuit Court ruled against Mr. Stiles. And the court argued
that running for office is not a fundamental right. Voting is a fundamental right, but running for office is
not a fundamental right. And further, that the age
requirement does not create a suspect class and,
probably most importantly, was rationally related
to the state’s interest in having qualified representatives. So, Mr. Stiles sues to get on the ballot and the 8th Circuit Court
of the United States says, no, that the age requirement
based on birth is reasonable, given the state’s legitimate interest in qualified representatives. But again, this is an
interesting case because of the issue it raises. Not so much the age issue, but the issue of when does life begin, which is the issue raised by Mr. Stiles. What do you need to know
for a 100 level class? 24 years and 30 years, it’s
always important to remember we’re talking about a 100 level class. So, election, two years,
four years, age requirement. Let’s talk a little bit more, when we find the eraser. Let’s talk about the leadership
in these two chambers. Again, trying to go across. Leadership in the House,
leadership in the Senate. Again, very similar to the United States. Leadership in the House is the Speaker. And there’s a number two person in the House of Representatives in Missouri, unlike the United States, the
Pro Tem, the Speaker Pro Tem. Main leadership is the Speaker, and can designate leadership
power to the Pro Tem. On the Senate side, there’s a bit of constitutional tension. If you think about the
United States government, who’s the presiding officer,
what role and so on, and it’s a question about the role of the Lieutenant Governor. And what you need to know
is there’s the tension between Article 4, Section 9, which gives the Lieutenant Governor ex officio authority in the Senate. Well, ex officio doesn’t mean
doesn’t have presiding powers, ex officio also doesn’t
mean has presiding powers. And ultimately, this is going
to be resolved in the court. The other part of the Constitution
that we need to look at is Article 3, Section 18. Again, Article 3 dealing
with the legislature, Article 3, Section 18 gives
the bodies themselves, the Senate and the House,
the power to appoint their own officers and determine
the rules of proceedings. So, Article 3, Section 18 allows the House and the Senate to name their officers and determine the rules for their proceedings. Now, one might think that that was clear, but it does not get resolved until 1973. Now, again, we’re working
on the 1945 Constitution, but this issue, this
tension between what does ex officio mean as compared to the officer and rules from Article 3. This is resolved in 1973,
State versus Carson. And in 1973 State versus Carson, the Missouri State
Supreme Court ruled that Lieutenant Governor does
not have presiding powers in the Missouri Senate. So, what’s left for the
Lieutenant Governor, we’ll talk about a little bit later. But in terms of the Legislature,
he gets to vote in a tie. He has no presiding authority. So, there’s some constitutional tension, in terms of the Governor, it is not clarified until 1973. So, Lieutenant Governor is
not the leader of the Senate. The leader of the Senate,
as the result of 1973, is the President Pro Tem. So, if we’re going across,
the leadership of the House is the Speaker, leadership
of the Senate is the President Pro Tem, not
the Lieutenant Governor. And again, a classic trick question. Which of the following is
the leader in the Senate, you might pick Lieutenant Governor based on your experience with US government, but that confusion is resolved in 1973, so the leader of the Senate
is the President Pro Tem. Okay, questions about leadership? It’s the same as the US,
a little bit different. I wanna move ahead and talk about the size of the House and the Senate,
and what does it mean to talk about the size of the body. So, let me erase just a little bit more. All right, side by side,
if you think about the size of the House, 163 members. Versus the Senate, 34. What does it mean? Yes, Carol, I know, one is
bigger than the other one. But let’s go just a little bit deeper, what does it really mean when it comes to comparing those two bodies? The bigger the body, the
more likely it is to be heterogeneous, to use a more common term, probably wanna talk about diversity. A bigger body, like the
House, is more heterogeneous, meaning it has a more diverse membership. The Senate is smaller and
so, it’s the opposite, it is more homogenous. It is less diverse. Now, I don’t mean, I
do mean less diverse in all of your standard demographic areas, but it means lots of different things. We’ll talk about that in just a second. But the House, because it is bigger, simply because it is bigger, is more diverse than the Senate. The Senate, simply because it is smaller, is less diverse. Well, what does that mean? What does the average
Missouri Senator look like? Does the average Missouri
Senator look like you? Which body is more likely to have someone that looks like you? And the answer is the Missouri House. What I’m gonna try and
leave you with here today is we think about the
differences between the House and the Senate, and we
tend to think about them in terms of parties. The democrats control the House and the republicans control the
Senate, or the other way around. But there are institutional differences, just because of the
size of the institution, that have nothing to do with parties. Let’s talk about what this
means one step further. Large body means small districts. A large body translates into
small, or smaller, districts. Contrary, a small body means larger districts. Let’s think about that for just a minute. Missouri’s House, the lower chamber in the General Assembly, Missouri’s House, is one of the largest
houses in the United States, one of the largest houses
in the United States. The Senate, by contrast,
with only 34 members, is one of the smallest
senates in the United States, and this is really important when it comes to representation. How big is a House district? Well, it’s not very big. What it means is it’s
small enough for you to get to know your representative better. The smaller the district,
the fewer the constituents that a representative needs to represent. The larger the district,
the more constituents they represent, and this is where we turn this a little bit on its head. The House is a more a
heterogeneous body because it is bigger, but because
the districts are smaller, the people that live in
those smaller districts are much more likely to be homogeneous. So, there’s a difference
between a heterogeneous body and a homogeneous district. Let me put it in plain English, a small district means
that you get to know your representative, and because
the district is so small, you are more likely to
live within a defined geographic area and you’re more
likely to be like each other than unlike each other. So, when you send a message to
your elected representative, it’s a clear consistent
message from a fairly homogeneous body. Now, let’s go to the other side. Larger district with a homogeneous body means a more heterogeneous constituency. So, a Senator represents
a larger geographic area, and because it’s a larger geographic area, it is more likely that the
constituents in that area are more heterogeneous. There are more differences of
opinion in a senate district than there are in a House district. So, a Senator is in a
tougher position because the message that a heterogeneous district, or heterogeneous constituent,
send is less clear than the one that you get from the House. Now, where does this make a difference? I’m gonna put an asterisk,
and we all know that that doesn’t necessarily
mean it’s more important, but this is what’s more interesting. Large Senate districts in
the middle of the state are agricultural, and it doesn’t
really make a difference, whether it’s a large Senate district or a small House district. The message is the same. As we talked about with
respect to Missouri’s political ideology in
the role of agriculture. Where the Senate district
size makes a difference is as those districts
get closer and closer to major metropolitan areas. So, a Senator from
Springfield might represent Springfield as an urban area, as well as parts of Green
County that are agricultural. The same would be true
for St. Louis county, especially as you go into West County, you maybe representing some
Western areas of that district, which are smaller towns
and more agriculture, and the same is true in Kansas City. The closer you get to the urban areas, as you’re in those collar
or border districts around St. Louis, around Springfield, and around Kansas City,
you’re much more likely to have a Senate district
that is heterogeneous, where you get much more
differences of opinion than if you’re a House or Senate district in the middle of the state. Does that make sense, Janice? Janice is nodding, does that
make sense to you, Richard? All right, so think about this
in terms of the differences between the House and the Senate, a heterogeneous more diverse body because it has smaller districts. Much more likely to be diverse. The Senate, because of larger districts, are much more likely to be the same. And then you turn that on its head when you think about the districts themselves. Small districts means
homogeneous constituents, large districts means
heterogeneous constituents. But the only time this really matters is in those border areas. All right, probably have
beaten that into the ground. Questions? All right, well, let’s
talk about this (mumbles). We tend to focus on
the differences between democrats and republicans. We tend to focus on the legislature, the House is controlled by democrats, or the House is controlled by republicans, or the democrats control the Senate, or the Governor is one
party and the legislature is another, we tend to focus on parties but what I want you to walk
away with is the difference between the House and the Senate, with respect to its numbers,
with respect to the size of the body, with respect to
the size of the constituency, means that there are
institutional differences between the House and the Senate. The House and the Senate
see things differently, regardless of party. If you think about what we
saw, if you wanna go back, what we saw in 2012, in 2013, in 2014, we saw a legislature that was controlled, both chambers were controlled
by the republicans. Republicans controlled the House, republicans controlled the Senate, but in 2013, ’13, and ’14,
the legislature didn’t effectively pass
legislation, even though they were controlled by the same party. And it’s because they have
institutional differences, they see things differently. And if you take nothing
away from this lecture, that’s gonna be one of
the more important things. There are institutional
differences that are sometimes more important than partisan differences. Okay, I’m putting a star next to that, sometimes more important. Okay, so that’s enough about size, let’s talk about sessions. And this is going to be applying to both the House and the Senate. And it has to do with when and how long the General Assembly meets. So, let’s get past that and… And we’ll have a conversation about sessions in the Legislature. All right, basically I
wanna talk about three kinds of sessions. The first and more important
one would be what we call a regular session. Regular sessions in Missouri
last for four and a half months, from January to May. Four and a half months. Now, if you go back to
the election of members of the House, a session lasts two years. And so, in any two year period, they’re going to meet
four and a half months, January to May, and then
four and a half months again, January to May. So, in any given period, two years, we’re gonna meet with
nine out of, no not 12. It’s a two year cycle, nine out of 24. So, the Missouri Legislature
only meets in regular session for nine months out of
24 in a two year cycle. That means Missouri has
a part time Legislature. Part time legislature. Now, the former political
science term for this is non-professional. I don’t like to use
non-professional because it sometimes sounds like I’m saying that they’re not professionals,
and that’s not at all what the term means. The term means part time. If you’re in Jefferson City
for nine months out of 24, that means you have a
regular job somewhere else. And so, being a legislator
is your part-time job, as opposed to your full-time job. You might be a butcher. You could be a baker, you might be… Can you see where this is going, Joni? You might be a candlestick maker
down at Silver Dollar City. Okay, I apologize. Part-time legislator,
but let’s go back to that conversation about districts again. Small districts means the
representative is closer to you. Think about nine months versus 24 months. Where are they most of the time? They’re in the district. They have a job, they’re your banker, they’re an insurance
agent, they’re a lawyer, they’re a farmer. You see your representative
when you go to the feed store. You interact with your
representatives on a regular basis because it
is a part-time legislature. The idea is that you
have a greater influence over your legislature
because they are part time. Other states, full-time legislator. I mean, think about the
criticism of Washington DC. They lose touch with
their constituents because they’re in Washington all the time. Not so in Missouri. You see your representative
getting a haircut. You see them at the feed store. You bump into them at the grocery store because they live in their district. And this is true for both
the House and the Senate. This is separate from the issue of size because Missouri has a
part-time legislature, they are closer to you. Now, another way to look at that is, and I think sometimes it’s a cynical way, but there’s always a
kernel of truth to this, if they’re in the
district more than they’re in Jefferson City, then
they’re not causing trouble. I mean, we talked about
Missouri being a conservative state, believing in smaller government. Well, one way to guarantee
smaller government is to keep the legislature from meeting and passing legislation. So, the fact that Missouri
has a part-time legislature is just one more example of Missouri’s political conservatism. So, starting with regular
sessions, 4.5 months every year, and that adds
up to nine out of 24. Now, one important difference, or something to think about, I guess, is that there’s no carryover
from one year to the next. And so, if you think
about the standard how a bill becomes a law, which
we’ll talk about next time, you get through all the
steps and the process, and the legislature adjourns in May. Let’s say there’s 100 steps in the process and you’re at step number 99. Where do you start again in January? You start back at one. So, issues that don’t make
it through the process, and I’ll have something to
say about this in just a second, issues and
legislation that don’t make it through the process
in four and a half months have to start again. So, there’s no carryover
between the first year and the second year. Maybe it’s not the most
important thing to remember, but it’s important to remember. So, that’s regular sessions. Now, we also will have special sessions. Special sessions separate
from the regular sessions, and these are ordinarily
called by the Governor. We’re going to talk about
the legislative role of the Governor when we
talk about the powers of the Governor in a couple of lectures, but for now, let’s just
talk about the Governor has the ability to call special sessions of the legislature. And I’d like to suggest
four different reasons that a governor might do that. And the most obvious example
historically in Missouri has been some kind of emergency. The legislature is called
into session by the Governor to deal with some sort of emergency, and more often than not, that emergency will be a natural disaster. I mean, perhaps before
some of your lifetimes, but 1993, flooding in Missouri, where the Missouri River
and the Mississippi River went over their banks. It happens on a fairly regular basis, but in 1993, it was
catastrophic for the areas around St. Charles and
down in Cape Girardeau. The Governor called the
Legislature into special session to deal with the policies as
a result of that emergency. And if you think about
other natural disasters that have occurred in your lifetime, then you can understand
a reason why a governor might call a special session. Another reason that
governor’s have called special sessions, and this is probably
been more true recently, because they only meet for
four and a half months, sometimes the process is too hurried and mistakes can be made. And so, a legislature can
be called back into session by the Governor to make
corrections to legislation that was passed. And the nice thing about
doing that is you can ordinarily call the legislature
back into special session to fix a problem in a law
before it’s actually enacted in the following year. So, the legislature
will be called back into special session to deal
with a mistake that was made in legislation that was passed during the regular session. Related to that, time. A governor might call the
legislature back into session, or call a special session,
to deal with something that did not get finished
during the regular session. And again, think about
four and a half months. How much time is that? It’s not a lot of time,
especially when you think about how little the legislature
does early in the process and how much they try and get
done late into the process, you can get closer, and closer, and closer to adjournment and not
get accomplished that one piece of legislation that you
could if you had another week. So, the legislature, again, more recently, has been called into special
session by the Governor to finish something they
didn’t have enough time to finish during the regular session. And again, I think
intuitively that makes sense. And you have an alternative,
you could extend the session, but then you get back into Missouri being a conservative state
and wanting the legislature there less frequently and so on. The fourth reason, and again, more recent, at least more recent for
me, would be politics. The Governor wants to
make a political point. And it could be to make a
political point in general, it could have to do with reelection, but I think we saw both
governors Holden and Blunt, calling the Legislature
back into special session to make a political point. It doesn’t necessarily have
to do with any emergency, it’s not to make a
correction, it’s not because we ran out of time, it’s
because the Governor in question, again, starting
probably with Governor Holden, but certainly true for Governor Blunt, the Governor wants to
make a political point with the Legislature,
but also probably with a broader audience in
the people of Missouri. Sometimes related to reelection, sometimes related to principle. So, why would a Governor
call the Legislature into special session? These would be the four reasons. Historically the most
important reason the Governor would call a special
session would be to deal with some sort of emergency. All right, that would be special sessions. The last kind of session, let me erase so that I stay in the center of the board so Drew doesn’t have to
follow me all over the place. Veto sessions. When the Governor vetoes
a piece of legislation, then the Legislature can
meet in a veto session, and this would be called by
the Legislature themselves, and it is always in September. So, the Governor vetoes a bill. The Legislature has the
opportunity to override that veto by calling a Veto Session. Now, there’s absolutely no requirement that the Legislature attempt to override the Governor’s veto. And if you think about this, why might the Legislature do this? Obviously politics, you
might have a democratic governor, a republican Legislature, or you might have a democratic Legislature and a republican Governor,
but really what it comes down to in a Veto Session is votes. How big was the margin of
passage when the Legislature passed the legislation in the first place. Do you have enough votes to overcome a gubernatorial veto? And so, the issue is always
resolved in September. So, the Governor could veto a dozen bills, and there’d be no Veto Session. The Governor could veto a dozen bills and there’s a veto session to
try and overturn six of them, or two of them, or one of them. But it is at the discretion
of the Legislature. Now, obviously the
leadership plays a role, but the Legislature itself
calls the Veto Session, and it’s always in September. Yes, Paul, it is more common
to find the Veto Sessions when the Legislature is
controlled by one party and the Governor is of another party. There’s no doubt because odds are, the Governor is more
likely to veto legislation passed by a legislature
from the other party. So yes, that is true. All right, so three kinds of sessions, regular, which is built
into the Constitution, special sessions, which is a
power given to the Governor, and then veto sessions,
which is a power given to the Legislature itself. So, we have House versus
Senate, terms and all that, then we have the three
different kinds of sessions. The last thing that we need to talk about, in terms of just the basic nuts and bolts of legislature, is term limits. So, the term term limits
is pretty self explanatory. Missouri’s constitution
has fixed term limits, remember the members of the
House and members of the Senate. Adopted in 1992, so
this is recent history, adopted in 1992 and added
to Article 3, Section 8, and as we talked about before, I am not gonna ask you in which
article, in which section, but it’s important, to me, to remember. Article 3, Section 8
establishes term limits. A member of the House,
a member of the House, can serve a maximum of eight years. A member of the Senate can
serve a maximum of eight years. Total, a member of the
General Assembly can serve a maximum of 16 years. Now, just to prepare
you for variations on a multiple choice exam, you can
ask this two different ways. How many years can a member
of the House serve maximum, how many years can a member… I wrote House twice. How many years can a
member of the House serve versus how many years can a
member of the Senate serve. The other way to ask it is by terms. So, let’s do the math. Eight years equals how many terms? Richard? Eight divided by two, Richard. Okay, four terms in the House. What about the Senate? Two terms in the Senate. So, the question could
be asked how many terms are imposed by the term limits? Or how many years in the Legislative body? It works either way. So, I want you to remember it both ways. Eight years in the house,
eight years in the Senate. That means four terms in the House or two terms in the Senate for
a grand total of 16 years. And this gets back to what I said before, in 1992, the citizens of
Missouri were concerned about incumbency, people serving too long
in the legislature. In many ways, their focus
was on Washington DC, in that representatives
and Senators losing touch with their constituents. And at this time period, in the late ’80s, early to mid ’90s, it
was a wave that swept across many of the states
of the United States. And they adopted term limits
on the State Legislatures. Missouri took this one
step further in 1996. 1996, Missouri adopted
term limits for their United States representatives. This has to do with the General Assembly in Jefferson City, but in 1996, the voters of Missouri adopted term limits for members of the United States House and members of the United States Senate. And this would be Article 8, Section 16. US House and US Senate. Missouri adopted term limits. Now, there was a couple of caveats, but I won’t go into the details because I don’t think in a 100 level class, you need to get into the
nitty gritty details. But I do need you to
know one important thing, in 1995, in 1995, the
United States Supreme Court, in a case called US Term
Limits versus Thornton. US Term Limits, I’m gonna run out of space. In 1995, US Term Limits versus Thornton, this was an Arkansas
case, Arkansas had adopted term limits for members
of the US House and members of the US Senate. In 1995, in US Term
Limits versus Thornton, the Supreme Court of
the United States said that was unconstitutional. That a state could not impose term limits on its US Senators and Representatives. That would require a
constitutional amendment. So, in 1995, the United
States Supreme Court says a state can’t impose term
limits on its members on US Representatives and US Senators. What’s the problem here? Carol, you’re shaking your head. Carol is correct. Missouri voted to impose
term limits on members of the US House and US Senate after the United States Supreme Court said that was unconstitutional. So, there’s a little bit
of irony in the years. Missouri adopts something
in 1996 that was all ready determined to be unconstitutional in 1995. Well, as we’ll talk about
later in the semester, nothing is unconstitutional forever. And I think the people who
passed term limits in 1996, believed that they had
principle on their side and maybe the United States Supreme Court will come around. I guess we’ll have to wait and see. All right, I wanna stop here for today. We’ve got the basics of the legislature. So, you have a sense of
the differences between the Missouri legislature
and the US legislature, but more importantly,
I want you to walk away with a little sense of
the differences between the Missouri House and
the Missouri Senate. And of course, I want
you to remember sessions, and term limits, and so on. Questions? All right, next time what
we’re gonna talk about is how a bill becomes a law
in the state of Missouri. Thank you very much for your time. The end.

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