Gayblack Canadian Man

Foreign Policy Analysis
Aadhaar – Identity to 1.2 Billion People

Aadhaar – Identity to 1.2 Billion People

– Yeah, good morning to all. Today I will be giving some
insights into this huge project called Aadhaar in India. I will take the journey of this. I joined this Aadhaar project during 2010 when it was just started
and I saw how it grow and how it has reached till today. So I will just give you the scheme of the presentation today. So a segment which will
cover the overview, the how and the reason why Aadhaar is
very important to India. Then the technical details
of the enrollment process and then how it is going to be implemented and rolled out finally. I’ll just do a small detail. The Unique Identification
Authority in India was established under
planning commission in 2009 and in 2009, sometime in
July/August the Chairman, Mr. Shri Nandan Nilekani, he joined. He’s one of the founder of a
very big IT set up in India, Infosys, he was one of the
founder and then he left Infosys and joined Unique Identification
Authority of India to roll it out. The idea was to give the identity to all the residents in India. Now, I’m not using the word citizen because citizenship in India is at times a very different kind of issues are there. The people who have come from
the neighboring countries, there is a process which takes
place for the citizenship. So the process of enrollment in unique ID has been a little bit broad based. So anybody who is in India having the stay for six months or so
can get Aadhaar number. It is a unique ID number. The idea is it’s a biometric-based ID, which is an online kind of ID. So it will be a very transactional-based, it will be very cheap, cost effective and it’s going to be very, very ubiquitous kind of authentication
system which will be there. Why do we need Aadhaar? Why do we need an ID system
in India kind of situation? I tell you that 1.2
billion people in a country is a huge number, and most of them, we have the data which says that 650 million do not have
access to organized banking. They don’t have any bank
account, they are dependent on those local money lenders
and those kind of system which may be very fleecing
type, which maybe, very, very overburdening on them. So at the same time they’re poor, but they’re part of the system, which would be very exploitive. At the same time, a good number of people do not have any document
to prove who they are. They don’t have a date of birth document, they don’t have a ration card, they don’t have any other kind of which we call the
welfare identification card or any other system by
which they can prove that they are who they are. So it was thought that
it is better to have an identification system,
it is better to have an ID, for the people who do not have any ID and that is the purpose, why it was set up under the planning commission
and not under any kind of regulatory law and
order kind of system. So Unique Identification
Authority of India is a part of the planning commission which is supposed to
target the marginalized and poor people of India, to reach to them in a very seamless and faster manner and to target them in the perfect fashion. Now here when we say
that why this is required from the government
side or the welfare side it is required because
the system is so porous. The people can become part of the welfare benefit more than once. I can be K.K. Sharma. I can be Kishan Kumar Sharma. I can be Sharma K.K., and all these things I can become part of
the same benefit system because the system does
not have the wherewithal to weed out the duplicates, weed out the fake, weed
out the ghost entries. That is where the
biometric-based unique ID comes into picture. If I’ve given the Aadhaar number, which is a 12 digit, and I become part of one of these system now I can’t come back
and give any other name and to become part of it again. So the system is to duplicate
and fakes will be weeded out and if I’m not part of
the system, I can claim it because I’m having the unique number. I can go to the service delivery mechanism and I can tell them, I’m
not part of your system, I’m one of the possible
and potential beneficiary, please include me so I
can claim this as a right. Because the system is able
to identify and verify yes, so and so with this
Aadhaar number is not part of my delivery system, not
part of my welfare system. I tell you the scope. In India we are having
hundreds of welfare schemes, pension schemes are there,
scholarship schemes are there. Schemes for women, which
are required to support them during the pregnancy,
during the child rearing, during the education
time, during the old age, during medical and all those
type of schemes are there to take care of the people
in a particular kind of need. There are other kinds of schemes, which we call them the subsidy schemes. For example, in India we
have got a LPG scheme, liquified petroleum gas, which is used for the
cooking purpose at domestic. Now these kind of schemes,
the cost is very high. A LPG cylinder we call
it, which is 14.7 KG and the cost to the
government some 900 rupees, but it is sold to the
individual customers, the domestic purpose, for
420 rupees, 421 rupees. So there is a lot of
subsidy which is there. Similarly, there is a
subsidy on the fertilizer. There is a subsidy on the seeds. There is a subsidy on the diesel. So all these subsidies, if
you see these two things, the welfare schemes and
the subsidized pricing, the annual budget of subsidy
in India is $46 billion and the mechanism is such by
which the delivery mechanism is not able to weed out duplicate, fakes, the non-entitled persons and
people are able to sneak in to siphon or take the
benefit from the system. So the scope of $46 billion
annual budget of subsidies or the benefits, if I feel
that there is a 10% leakage and with the help of the
Aadhaar, if I’m able to at least prevent a part of it, the scope is almost $5 billion annually. And I will share some details that one Aadhaar generation
is in dollar terms, it will be very, very small amount. I will give that detail. Now, what is the Aadhaar? In Aadhaar what we have
done is we normally in any government scheme,
and I think I can say even for the SSN, social
security number of US, where the idea is to
collect many informations of the individual from
where who is the father, who is the son, all that kind of thing. What education, what income, and that. In Aadhaar, we have done a very simple, small number of information
which we are collecting. Very, very small information
which we’re collecting and we don’t want to get
into the bad building kind of situation. It is a very simple project
where we are working on a very thin and slim infrastructure layer. Now you see what we do. We just give a 12 digit number. It’s a numerical number. It is randomly generated. That means by looking at number, I can’t say whether the
person belongs to a category, belongs to a region, belongs
to literate or illiterate, or male or female, just a
stupid number, 12 digit number. And this number, as I’m
saying, it is a random number. There is no intelligence in that. What it does is, it is
based on biometrics. So I will you show the
process of what we collect as a part of the enrollment. Because it is based on
biometrics, we are able to ensure that one set of biometric
cannot get two Aadhaar numbers. So that means if I go and
give my enrollment detail I will get one Aadhaar number. If I go some other time
and give my details again, it will be rejected as duplicate. That means this set of
biometrics has already received to the Aadhaar backend and is not to be re-issued
an Aadhaar number. So by that, we are able to
ensure that biometric-based ID is unique, issued once in a lifetime. Once the Aadhaar number is
done, it is issued once for all. Although we do some updates. It is available for everybody. Even infant child can
have the Aadhaar number although we don’t capture
the biometric for them because the child biometric, up to five years we don’t capture. After five years only we
capture the biometric. So up to five years we
link the Aadhaar number of the child with the parent or guardian. It is cost effective. As I’m saying, we don’t profile anything and we don’t guarantee any benefit. Now I will tell you why we
have taken that position. It is a very difficult position
because at the same time I’m saying it is very useful,
it is required for delivery, it is required for that, it
is required for targeting, but at the same time
saying that Aadhaar as such will not guarantee any benefits
because the benefit giving is by the particular domain. Suppose the Food and
Civil Supplies Department wants to give the ration
card to the residents, they will identify
whether this person needs what kind of ration card. We’ve got two or three
types of ration cards where the person can go
and claim some provisions from the street outlet. He may be below poverty-line person so he may receive X
number or X KG of grains and X KG of this or something. Similarly, if he’s not
a below poverty-line, he may receive just some small requirement of his can be met through this. There is a category which is known as much below poverty-line,
extreme poverty, there the number of KG
of grains is very high. That means the entire demand of the family can be met through this provision. So the domain person will decide how much and what kind of category to be given. The Aadhaar will only give the support to weed out the fakes, to
weed out the duplicates, and to target the individual beneficiaries along with the family kind of setup. As I was telling that we
collect minimal information. We collect just four
fields, which are mandatory. We collect name, age with a
date of birth if it is there, the sex and the first time of
Government of India project we are capturing transgenders also. Then the address of the resident. The address of the resident is also so that he receives the card back. We don’t issue any card. We just give information
through a piece of paper which we call Aadhaar letter and is the purpose to intimate
the Aadhaar number to him. So we are not issuing any smart card. We’re not issuing any
kind of plastic card. It is just, actually it is
one third of the A4 sheet which we are communicating to the resident with the number and some
basic details of the resident. If the resident is having,
we collect his email, phone number, mobile
number, and some consents, whether he consent to
give the data to the state for some welfare benefits
or whether he wants to open a bank account. So this is one thing
which we have included right at the time of enrollment because the very large
number of population in India does not have the access to banking. We took their option
of opening the account right at the time of enrollment because Aadhaar is going
to be a complete KYC, know your customer norm, which we call in the financial terms. So Aadhaar is a complete KYC norm, so while the Aadhaar number is generated, we are able to tell the banking sector please open a bank account for him and he will be approached
by the local bank, say that now your bank
is open, account is open, you please activate it. So this is one very hard
coated this communication we have developed where
to make everybody part of, actually in India, we’ve got
the Reserve Bank of India, which is the central bank
for India and we call it RBI. The RBI has put a mandate to
have the financial exclusive for the major part of the population. so that FI mandate, we are
serving that FI mandate as a consequence of ruling
out the Aadhaar project because reaching that
remote corner in a village, in a hamlet, to take his
consent for issuing the Aadhaar as well at the same time to
give the bank account is huge because the person is not
approached by many agencies even in his lifetime. So at least now the project
is going to reach him. So this is the time to
find out whether he wants to open the bank account so that in future when the benefits will
flow they can go seamlessly to his account and there
is a reasoning in that. The reasoning is that the Aadhaar is the bank account number also. That means the backend knows
that this Aadhaar number means this bank account. Yeah you want to say? – [Female] So would an
Aadhaar number be enough in terms of providing
identification for banks? So somebody was opening a bank account. – Yep. – [Female] They don’t
have show their passport? (Kishan drowns out speaker)
– No, nothing. No, yep, yep. In case of Aadhaar, if
your address of the account is the same as mentioned
in the Aadhaar letter then you don’t need anything else because there is a possibility that when the Aadhaar letter is issued the address might have changed
to the resident meanwhile. Like I got Aadhaar for address A, but I moved to another city,
I moved to another location, in that case bank may ask you
to give some address proof, but they will not ask you ID proof because ID proof is Aadhaar. But if you want to use
it as a complete KYC in that case your address
should also be the same as it is mentioned in the Aadhaar letter and that is how it is. Now, because it is once in a lifetime the quality of enrollment data is very, very critical in this, so we are capturing two types of data. One is demographic
data, name, age and all, and second is the biometric data. Now once the data is captured and it is moved for the backend you can see that what we do is, I think I’ll just do my mock there. In the biometric data what we do is we take a photograph,
we take 10 fingerprints and they’re taken in, I
think your US visa system is also like this, where
it is four, four and two. So we also take the same process. Four left, four right
and two thumbs together. And then the two iris. Now irises, if you see the iris, iris is not the retina, it is not cornea. It is the front of the eye,
which has got a huge number of design and patterns. The design and patterns
create a unique identifier for each iris, and a fingerprint is like, I think India associate itself to the usage of fingerprint
in the very, very long back during British time, they collected LTI, left thumb impression. This LTI used to be
like forcing the person, he can’t deny that it is not his LTI. So fingerprint is there. Now why we wanted the fingerprint as well as the iris? If you see the fingerprint
the (mumbles) point we call it that is the point where
it get differentiated from one fingerprint
to another fingerprint and each person, 10
fingerprint, these are 10 types. These are not same, even for one person. It doesn’t mean that my
five fingers are same type. No, each one is different. So the fingerprint has
gotten not enough numbers of the differentiation to give a unique ID to 1.2 billion people. There was a possibility
that at some point of time the differentiation would not be possibly I’m saying in terms of the computers. The system which is used to differentiate and saying this set of
fingerprints are different from this set of fingerprints. There’s a possibility that
for 1.2 billion people and going forward nearly
1.5 and two billion over a period of maybe 20-30 years. So we wanted another good biometric which can give that kind of support to keep on issuing the ID
number to billions of people without actually repeating the
chances of giving the number to the same kind of setup. I’m saying from the computer point. There is a software which require. Now when we do the Aadhaar generation what we do is we run that new data set vis or vis the gallery of the other. Suppose today I check at my website. We have issued 592 million Aadhaar. 592 million Aadhaar have
already been issued. So when I’m taking the next
data and when this comes in I’m comparing this new
record with a gallery size of 592 million, so this we
call it generation of Aadhaar based on one is to N comparison. N is my gallery size. So when I issue first Aadhaar
I just say it is unique because it would be the first
and I just give the Aadhaar. When I do the next one, I
compare to the first one and today, the system is
comparing the next set of record with 592 million records and it is going to be much more complex
and complex going forward. There’s another important data point is what would be my authentication? Now, I do authentication. I’ve got an Aadhaar number. I go to an authentication mechanism. Suppose I want to open the account and bank has the feasibility
of doing the authentication so they have got a small
point of sale kind of device. So I feed my Aadhaar
number, 12 digit number, give my fingerprint to this. Now this data set goes to my backend and from there, a reply comes yes or no. Suppose I use Golam’s
Aadhaar and put my biometric it will become as no. And if I give my Aadhaar
with my biometric, it will come as yes. Not more than that. It won’t say it is Kishan Kumar Sharma. It won’t say that presently
he’s doing CAS in Syracuse. It won’t say all that. It just say yes or no. So we are communicating in a
very, very minimal information to enable that service delivery mechanism to extend this service
based on saying yes or no to give a benefit of authentication. When I say I’m K.K. Sharma
or Kishan Kumar Sharma and this is my Aadhaar, system knows yes, he is the same guy. Second is whether I want a loan, bank will do its due diligence
whether I’m loan worthy or whether I just want
to open a small account. They may say okay, open the account. So you do have to do this
service delivery mechanism to extend this service. So identity is just to give
the authenticated version of person who is taking the
service, who he claims to be whether it is correct or not. That happens when it’s two one because there is a hard
number and a biometric goes so that does not do
with the entire gallery. It just goes with my Aadhaar
number and that biometric and it says yes or no. Actually, there’s some
other verifications also. Now what is happening? Aadhaar is inclusive process. If you see that the entire
system is very, very simple. I’m giving a data set, the
system is running at the backend some verifications and validations, giving me the Aadhaar number. I’m not having any chip-based card, I’m not having any smart card, I just been communicated
my Aadhaar number. Actually that letter is also not required. I just know my number. I know my 10 digit mobile, so I can know my 12 digit Aadhaar also. Not a big thing going forward
that is what we assume. So when that 12 digit Aadhaar,
so where is the identity. Now with that 12 digit
Aadhaar this is my identity. The system if it is prevalent all across at these service delivery
mechanisms, I can go to any system and say this my Aadhaar,
this my biometric, please verify who I am. So I don’t need any smart card. I don’t need any kind of physical form because physical form of cards
or IDs can be duplicated, can be compromised, but
although technology can do that, but it will be very, very
difficult to compromise on the biometric authentication. I’m not saying it is impossible, but it will not be easy. It will be very, very difficult
to compromise on that. When I’m having the Aadhaar and the biometric-based authentication I can do all this from
the delivery mechanism of these services. Now presently our authentication mechanism is all around we are
able to do authentication with the point of sale machines,
that is small machines, we’re able to do the
authentication with the help of the computer terminals. We’re able to do with
the link of bank account. We’re able to do with
universal ID is the idea that it is a now 600 million
is going to be any time, maybe another 10 days’ time. So this is our target up to December 2014, and I think in India this will be one of the very few project,
if it is not the only one, which has overachieved the timeline by not less than nine months. The number of IDs which
were supposed to be issued by December 2014, that is 600 million, half of the population,
we will be able to achieve by maybe 10th of March. Today it’s 592 million,
so another eight million and our daily rate is around
one million-plus a day. We generate one million
Aadhaar numbers a day minimum. So what is Aadhaar? Now you see I normally in UIDAI, Unique Identification Authority, we compare the ID Aadhaar number with communication revolution. In India around 20 years
back or 25 years back the landlines, the
telephone lines, used to be in a very, very restricted manner. One has to wait for
months to get a telephone. Then the mobile revolution and people who did not have
access to the landline, suddenly everybody has got the mobile. So we call it a leapfrog communication. There is a leapfrog jump. That jump was that a person who was not having any communication link with the landline is keeping the mobile. A vegetable vendor, a normal iron man who does the iron of the clothes, and all those low kind of
workers who do not have access. They do not know technology,
they just receive calls say I’m coming. The business process of India has changed over a period when the
mobile revolution came. Similar thing we are expecting
it happens with the Aadhaar. People did not have access
to the physical IDs, but now they’re having online ID. ID which they can take
with them and which will be accepted by this system. Right now what happens,
I’ve got a ration card from one state of India. If I go to other state and
why I want to prove my ID, the person may say I don’t know. I have to get it very far from that place. It may take week, it may take 10 days, it may take one month. Now, the system is that
this ID is across India. It creates the mobility and with the economic growth of India, the mobility in India is so high, not even in the lower
sectors like the labors and migrant workers. Even in the higher complex jobs like IT. People in IT sector are
moving all around India and all around the world. If a person who is well
educated from IT kind of, is one of the technological
institute and he’s from Delhi and goes to Bangalore, he
faces the same kind of problems which a worker faces when he moves from one of the backward
state to any of the city. So this is the mobility and accessibility which is giving Aadhaar to everybody who is becoming part of the system. As I’m telling, this is the
know your customer norm. It is satisfying. All these services have already
started giving the benefits based on Aadhaar. So one can go and become
part of the LPG database by showing his Aadhaar number
and sharing that detail so they can take LPG connection, they can take a phone connection, they can take the ration card. They can open the bank account. It is the ID while you’re
traveling in train, sometimes when the TC
comes and ticket checker wants your ID, so the Aadhaar is. So all these things are happening already. What happens? Because Aadhaar is unique, it cannot be duplicated for a person. If I start taking Aadhaar in my database as a service delivery department I will move out all the redundant entries which may be fake, which may be duplicate, which may be obsolete. Like what happen in ration
card, which is a food and civil supplies kind of thing. People move on without
informing the department that I have moved on. That entry exist and that entry exist on that particular entry,
the shop owner may keep on taking the ration from the system, but with the Aadhaar it’s not possible. When the person moves out
and he goes to another area and becomes part of the
system, the system will trigger that remove this from
the previous entries. So with the help of Aadhaar one can clean the scheme
database, existing database. It creates better delivery
in a sense that right now a family has got the entitlement
to take the provisions from a particular shop, in
future there is a possibility that if one person from
that family has moved to some other location, he can still have by showing his Aadhaar
and getting authenticated. So the concept of mobility of entitlement is also moving. Increased access and transference. Transference means are
they getting the benefit, a person has to really struggle. Now they know that my Aadhaar is unique, please find out if I’m
there in the system. If I’m not there, I’m
entitled, please get me. He can get it as right, which is not possible in
the physical systems end. Now again, this is the very new thing which has been done by
Government of India and UIDAI. Normally all government
systems, a new project comes, the idea is to create own empire. I should be the biggest. I should have my own thing
right up to the last point, but UIDAI was the first
organization I can say which was having the
mandate to have a staff, a strength of 900, but
we decided deliberately not to exceed 500. Even if there is a mandate
to have the 900 people, the internal set up says no,
we don’t want a big number. Use the existing infrastructure available at the ground level. So we have got something called UIDAI, which is a very small number of people, very, very thin line. We work with registrars,
so like state governments, post office, banks, LIC,
the financial institutions, the NGOs, civil society or insurance. We work with them, they’re all registrars. They go on and set up
the enrollment mechanism at the last mile. So they go, they work out a
price from those agencies. These are private agencies,
and those private agencies go and set up the enrollment
process at the last mile to collect the enrollment
data and send to us. So that is how we say
that is scalable model because doing 1.2 billon and
doing 600 million Aadhaar in less than four years was a huge task. It was getting into the nanosecond kind of Aadhaar registration. Similarly, how diligent Aadhaar
unless you get the numbers. So the enrollment should come, so that you can generate Aadhaar. So you should have enrollment system, which is highly scalable, which can scale as per the demand. Not like somebody’s pushing it from there. So it was an automatically
private sector participation at the enrollment agency level, registrars as disperse as possible, they’re available there. They’re having their set up there already. Like all state bodies,
they’re having their set up at the last mile. The post office, actually we’re now the
biggest in the world, more than one lakh, more
than 150,000 postal locations are there in India. So all those are automatically become the front end for the UIDAI. So we did with a synergy
existing infrastructure and pushing out our own mandate
of doing this enrollments. – [Female] What does it mean UIDAI? – Sorry? – [Female] The UIDAI at the top. – This top one? – [Female] Uh-huh. – Unique Identification
Authority of India. So it’s acronym UIDAI. Unique ID. – [Female] That’s a department
or organization now? – It is an office under
planning commission. – Planning commission?
– Yeah. This is the office which
issue the Aadhaar number. How we wanted this? Because we made the system so scalable we have defined a standardized process. So the software which would
work on the system is our. The enrollment software
is in-house software, not taken from the shelf. So it was a software
designed by in-house team with some IT collaboration. Then we have come out with the ecosystem where we have got certified devices. Certified devices by a third party. Certified biometric devices,
certified operators, certified supervisors,
and a mandated process to receive the data. As far as the data
integration is concerned, as soon as the enrollment gets over and a receipt of the
enrollment is generated, then enrollment packet gets encrypted. So not even the operator, not
even the enrollment agency, not even the registrar can
do anything with that packet. So it becomes a very,
very secure data packet. It may get cut up, so it is of no use, but nobody can open and take the data. It will be only done at the backend when the UIDAI agent right there. Now the process is that we’ve
got is a standard process. Data transfer. It is process that our
CID, Central ID repository and then it goes out after
the Aadhaar registration, it goes out as a letter, sent
by the government agency, Indian Post, to the resident. So the address of the
enrollment is very important because a third party
is going to deliver it and that third party
will go by the address. They don’t know who he is or she is. So they will go and deliver, that means the address is very,
very important in that. So this is the process flow. A resident comes, he comes to the center. He gives his demographic and biometric, data gets encrypted, it goes
to the Central ID repository where de-duplication happens,
the UIDAI is assigned and even there’s some
rejection may be on account of the data quality,
rejections may be on account of the duplicity. Then the Aadhaar letter
gets out and it goes then for entire thing for the touch point, we’ve got an automatic call center, which has got a toll-free number, it has got the email and
other kind of things. This is the typical enrollment center. Now you see here. This is the laptop on
which the operator works. He has got a system by which he works. This is the iris, this the slab scanner we
call it for the fingerprint. Now this is very important. This second monitor is for the resident. Because generally the enrollment centers are working either side
by side or in a 90-degree. If I’m getting enrolled what
happened I’m always thinking what the operator is doing,
so there is a tendency to look into the screen of the operator and there’s a kind of
discomfort at all the time. So what we thought is, let
us have another monitor for the resident. So monitor of the resident shows what exactly is
being done by the operator, so he need not be uncomfortable. He sees what exactly is happening, whether the name is written correctly, whether the date of birth
is written correctly, whether the address is complete, whether the mail ID or the phone number is correctly recorded and we have kept this in two languages, in English and in local language. Actually India has got a
multiple official languages. Each place is very, very
attached to that language. Like suppose I stay
presently in Karnataka. There is a language called
Kannada, which is not Hindi. So the people they see English data as well as the data in Kannada and they’re able to many times,
when they don’t know English they’re able to see it in Kannada and they say no, this is
incorrect, please do it this way. This address should be like this. So we have given that
comfort to the resident by giving this second monitor so that he or she can look at it. Now this is where it happens
that the person comes, he gets to the helpdesk,
his documents are checked, one of the POA, proof of
address or proof of ID. Then he fills up the form. The photo is taken, the iris image. You can see the figure four. Iris image is like a
binocular kind of thing, just kept here. There is infrared mechanism by which the eye just look into
that, it captures the eyes. That iris image. Then the fingerprint capture
is there, four four two. Then the resident has got an
option to review the data. Once the demographic and
biometric got captured, resident has the option to see a screen where entire data is shown to him or her where they see yes, everything is correct and once he says yes, it is correct, the entire process is
authenticated by the operator. Now operator we know who he is because he’s a certified one. But this the receipt with capture dated after the enrollment gets complete and these two circle points
are the tracking mechanism until the Aadhaar is generated
the person, resident, can track this information. As we’re saying that the
demographic data quality is very important so the person is supposed to see this information. Even we kept the margin
for the missing biometrics, like there is a possibility there is a permanent biometric missing, my finger is not there, this is finger. There is a possibility
that there’s a temporary, some problem with my finger
which can’t be captured or there is some injury or something so we have kept a
biometric exception clause where the operator can
figure out that one finger, two finger, one eye, two eyes,
or a complete bio exception. Very few cases we found that, two or three cases in one
million where they may have none of the biometrics to be capturable, like people who are leper, their hands may be and
they are having the eyes are also not there, like they’re blind and
eyes are not capturable. Another important point
is that iris may be there even a person is blind. Iris is in the front of the eye. This has nothing to do
with the visual power of the person. So person may have the iris,
even if he’s not able to see. So there is a possibility
that two or three people out of a million may not
have any of the biometric so we have kept that full bio exception and partial bio exception
cases, then the system knows that this biometric need
not to be collected. This is the consent we take
for the opening of the account for sharing the
information with the state. Now this is September 29, 2010. The first Aadhaar letter was issued by Prime Minster of India. That was in one of the western
state, that is Maharashtra and today as I’m telling you, we have come to the 592 million Aadhaar and if you count in number of days and the number of Aadhaars
have been generated I think as far as Indian
standard it is huge. On the very first time
we had the capability of doing around 50 Aadhaars a day, now our capacity is 1.5 million per day. We can issue Aadhaar to more than 1.5 million residents a day. So now you see the entire ecosystem. You need more than 1.5
million enrollments to come in so that I can keep on
generating 1.5 million and by this rate, we
are already 600 million nine months in advance, more
than nine months, 10 months, and if the enrollment
rate keeps on continuing I think people were doubting initially that how will you do 1.2 billion,
it’s such a mammoth task, but by overachieving the first deadline I think there is a possibility
the entire ecosystem is well oiled and
lubricated to do the job. Now why this Aadhaar,
unless the system is there to make authenticating
working and available Aadhaar is of no use. Just I’m having Aadhaar number,
it’s just a fancy number. Not even fancy, it is a useless number. So if I’m having an
authentication system in place then only it is useful. So now what we’re working on is, that Aadhaar authentication
process is already on. I can tell you that in
India the financial sector is receiving huge kind of re-engineering. Recently one of the private sector bank has introduced a paperless
opening of account. That means they’ve got a
system which is integrated with their banking software,
which they call CBS, Code Banking Solution, so I go. I’m not carrying my Aadhaar number also. I’m not carrying my letter also. I just go, give my Aadhaar
number, give the fingerprint, the system will talk to UIDAI backend, will fetch the data
because I’ve given consent to open the account to fetch
the data from the UIDAI. So UIDAI gives the photo,
name, age, address and gender. This basic data comes and sit
in this system of this bank and they say there’s no entry of the data. The banking system is
receiving an electronic copy from UIDAI based on the consent of this prospective customer, and by this he’s able to open the account. Because the address is through UIDAI. Name, photo, age, and the
Aadhaar authentication is through UIDAI. So when I give my number and the biometric once it is approved,
once it is authenticated, the data flows to the system. Now we are saying it is a
paperless opening of account. The bank is not keeping any
physical filling of form. The bank is not keeping any
proof of ID, proof of address. The bank is just going
on, they’re calling it electronic know your customer norm, EKYC. So we are able to do this kind of thing because that possibility is there. There is an online authentication system. There’s an online ID
system and the industry and service delivery mechanism
if they’re able to synergize they’re able to meet and they
can do this kind of change in the service delivery mechanism and as I was saying that
we will just say yes or no, but when the resident says
yes, I want this delivery I want this system, so
they can come back to that. Now they can do it
through various systems. They can be fingerprint,
they can be at OTP, they can be PC based. There are post machines,
there are mobile apps, there are various kinds of apps. We have got something
called developer portal where a lot of private sector
initiatives are happening. People are coming out with their own apps based on the Android, based
on other kind of open systems and they’re able to link
to this for the purpose of developing new systems
for service delivery agencies for authentication for
a cleaning of the data, for doing the service registry
for the new beneficiaries. So these are some of the very
country-specific requirement like in central government,
they’ve got various schemes. Like for example I can say
past food, for income tax, for water, identification
for railways, for postal. Then there are some state
government local schemes, which are scholarship schemes and all. Then public sector and
private sector, microfinance. With this, this is our website, which can give a lot of information. It has got entire detail of the UIDAI right from its inception,
what has been done, who have done it, and
how much is being done. I think I took a little bit more time, but any questions? Yeah, yeah? – [Male] In terms of the infrastructure, you gave some details, but I was thinking, if you don’t require physical document then you are relying on two prerequisites. First is the (male speaking
off microphone) system. – Sorry? – [Male] (male speaking
off microphone) systems. For example, the banking system with– – Yeah, yeah, UIDAI, Aadhaar. – [Male] Exactly, and between
governmental agencies. There has to be general (male
speaking off microphone). You can share data, just like– – Biometric authentication. – [Male] And the other
thing is you need to spread out the use of
this different devices you need to authenticate. You mentioned that you
can use an application on a cellphone or you can use some– – Point of sale devices. – [Male] POS, but you would need that in order to make it work. – Yep, yep. – [Male] That’s the
technological requirements with doing something like this and then also, there is some
sort of political, social, (door slamming drowns out speaker) because you said that this
information will be encrypted, but maybe there would be
some kind of persistence from the users thinking well maybe this is part of a surveillance program. If they’re using my Gmail
account, why are not. – Okay, okay, I got what you’re trying. You’re saying there’s a lot of partners and stakeholders in the ecosystem. There are various devices,
there are various users, and the resident may at
times not very confirmed whether his data is
properly used, is that? Is that what you’re saying? – [Male] You need to do two things. The appropriate technology and also people need
to rely on this system that’s not gonna be
used for other purposes. – Okay. I can tell one thing
regarding the technology that UIDAI right from day one has gone for the open source architecture. We have not tied up ourself with any of the vendor-logged system. So it is a open ecosystem where the UIDAI is giving these specifications
and the stakeholders are trying to meet those specifications in directing with the UIDAI. So UIDAI is in total control who comes in, what he gets, and what
he’s not supposed to get. Point one. Point two is that these devices, whatever is coming at this ecosystem, they’re also third party certified. They’re not certified by UIDAI, they’re not certified by the vendor, they’re certified by a third party we have got in India, an
innovation called STQC, standardized testing quality
certification agency. It’s Government of India’s
public sector kind of. So it does the certification
of various devices which are coming into the play wherever the systems are working. As regards the system of privacy, the residents having some discomfort of the data getting misused, I know there may be some
concerns they’re having, but from UIDAI perspective, from the organization perspective, the data which we collect from
the resident just the name, age, address and gender. This data we are not doing any profiling when we are issuing the Aadhaar number. That means by looking
at the Aadhaar number you don’t know who he is,
she is, from where and all. There is no north, south, east, west. No male, female, literate,
not young, no old. Nothing of that sort. From the point of view in a lighter vein. I shared more information on the Facebook and my information on Facebook is known to millions of
people whom even I don’t know. They know me if they want to know. The purpose of India ID mechanism is to reach to the disadvantaged,
marginalized group which do not have any access presently to any of the welfare benefits or at least few of the welfare benefits in a proper, targeted,
easy, smooth manner. To do that, and that’s why I
think initially I mentioned that you UIDAI is not
under Ministry of Home. It is not under any intelligence agency. It is not under any other
kind of regulatory mechanism. It is under a planning commission. So our objective is to pass
on the benefits of welfare to the needy people. So entire ecosystem is
so open and transparent, everybody can find out, if
you look to the website, you can just find out who
all are working of us, which are the agencies, what they do, how they do, how much the get out of it. Actually, I tell you,
per Aadhaar generation UIDAI spent some $1.5, only $1.5 total, out of which around point
six dollar goes to the state, which is like registrar because they’re doing
the enrollment and all. You won’t believe for
per Aadhaar generation. at the backend those vendors,
the software companies, we pay them in Indian rupee,
two point some rupees, if I convert into cents, it will be something
like three or four cents. This is what we’re paying
per Aadhaar generation to the people who are actually doing that. They’re doing it in a totally isolated, disconnected world when the
data comes and gets processed. So there is no leaking. It is not connected. And the privacy has been taken care because for to talk of privacy
I don’t have the basic needs so we’re talking of the
atmosphere and the environment where the first level needs to meet and then we may get into the
much more stringent systems where the people will
not feel discomforted. There are some people
who feel discomforted. Yes? – [Female] We are kind of at time. One quick question, with one quick answer and then will you be,
– Yeah okay. – [Female] I need to be
respectful of classes that start shortly, but
you’ll be able afterwards? – Yeah for 10 minutes because
I’ve got a class at 12:45. – [Female] Okay and if not, I’m sure you’ll make yourself available – But I think we can meet up, yeah. – [Male] I have one question. I want to talk about. Azel told that when
there’s a public service there’s an opportunity in India, there such be a kind of
system of connectivity to the main server that
identifies information. So is infrastructure across India that they’re connected
to Internet each agency they have this equipment of communication and then their work would be somewhat dependent to the connectivity. If there’s no connectivity, no service. – I think that’s a very good question and that is one of the
concern for us also. Like we have got certain pockets
which we call dark pockets, but the rate is increasing
with the new technology, wifi and other kind of systems. We have acknowledged this fact that there may be occasions
either for the time or for the area that the
connectivity is not there. So we have provided a system
of a buffered mechanism. So you go to area which is
not properly connected now, so you collect the information,
go to your connected point, put it into the system
and it gets authenticated. However, enrollment system is not online. However, enrollment system is offline. We don’t need connectivity for enrollment. It is offline, data
captured, data encrypted, taken into disk, taken into media, go to the UIDAI personally,
send it through the mail, send it through some method,
upload it to the SSTP there. There are various
mechanisms are available. Enrollment is not required connectivity. Only for authentication purpose. I need connectivity and
acknowledging this fact of non-availability we have
done that buffered mechanism where I collect the data,
keep it in the device, go to a connected point and upload it. It’s an issue for us also, you are right. It is a concern to have a
universally available service. This is one of the constraint. – [Female] All right, thank you very much and as I said, we’ll be
available a few minutes after. – Okay, okay, no problem. (audience applauding)

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