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Foreign Policy Analysis
Aadhaar: Digital ID Project of the Government of India

Aadhaar: Digital ID Project of the Government of India


(signature tune) – Good afternoon. Today I’m presenting about Aadhaar, how it has transformed
one of the poor states into a developing state,
that is Jharkhand. Jharkhand is in the
eastern part of the country and it was earlier a very poor state, having a tribal people and
it is transforming now. It is most developing state right now. How it has gone? First of all let us
understand what is Aadhaar, and thereafter we’ll go
to the Jharkhand project. Aadhaar is a 12-digit identity number with a mission to provide unique
ID to all Indian residents, and the second mission is to
online seamless authentication of the Aadhaar to the residents of India. For enrollment, it is
only one time process. Government collects data, deduplicates it and then issues a 12-digit number. For authentication it
is a recurring effort, whenever any service is delivered, you have to go to some point of sale, authenticate yourself with your biometric and then this data is matched with your data kept in the data server. If it is matched, that means you are the same
person who you claim to be, and then the services are delivered. In collecting the Aadhaar, we are taking a very
standardized attribute, that is only name, gender,
date of birth, and address. And that data, along with the face image, ten fingerprints, and two iris is sent to our data center. In data center, it is matched
with all the existing data. If it doesn’t match, then
it is a unique number. If it is unique, then one 12-digit Aadhaar
number is generated and it is issued to the
resident, communicated by post, as well as electronic
Aadhaar is available. After this, this kind of
enrollment centers are there, where the people in Jharkhand are queuing for the collection of data. After that, after issue of
12-digit Aadhaar number, that resident is empowered to
become authenticable anywhere. The purpose of this authentication is that you forget about any card, do not keep any smart card or anything. Just be present with your
biometric at any place, and establish yourself, that who are you. Just put any of your attribute, maybe iris, maybe fingerprint, and establish that are you the same person who you claim to be? That means, for identity,
no paper identity card, no other card is required. Simply 12-digit number you can keep, remember or save in your mobile number and go everywhere in India. This is done by authentication server. Authentication server is here, which has a authentication server agency, and authentication server
agency gives, transmits the data to authentication user agency. Authentication user agency are generally government and private
sector undertakings, who are getting data, authentication data for establishing the
identity of the person. And the person goes to the
authentication user agency, gives his biometric
records, and he is verified. After verification, whatever
government services, private services he wants
to avail, he can avail. Where are we today? As on date, if you go by the sector, that is adult population, it is about 98% of adult
population has got Aadhaar. But if you go by, some children are left, some up to 18 years old children are still to be enrolled for Aadhaar. Therefore our enrollment
has reached to 941 million and data collection is 959 million out of 1.25 billion population. Now the most important part is that this is very cost
effective data collection. Because the data
collection, deduplication, Aadhaar generation, it’s
total cost is only $1.06. One dollar and six cents. And it gives empowerment
to a resident or citizen. It is resident-centric. Resident is empowered for
having mobile connection, mobile connections,
bank account, insurance, LPG connections, government
services, train or air travel, hassle-free he can go
with his biometric data and a Aadhaar number. It is also a payment address. Through this Aadhaar number, any state government
or government of India, government companies, as
well as private companies, can transfer through a payment bridge which is known as the
Aadhaar Payment Bridge, their money to the targeted population. Targeted population means
below poverty line population, old aged people, these targeted population
can get cash or benefits seamlessly through the
Aadhaar payment bridge. This is a convenient, some of the schemes which is run by Government of India. Social security pension, national guaranteed wages
payment, scholarship payment, all these are routed through
the Aadhaar Payment Bridge. And it is going to the bank
account of the resident, after that, through
authentication he can withdraw. Here there are two parts. First part is whether this amount flows to the resident’s account or not. Banking transaction ensures that the exact amount has
gone into that account. The second part is whether that amount has been received by that person or not. Through authentication it is ensured that he has received also
that benefit or the amount. The two parts are ensured
through this payment bridge. Thus this amount goes
directly to the resident, there is no leakages, no middleman can get any
leak out of that money. Now the applications in India, all India it is running, providing food security,
pension payment, wage payment, financial transaction,
managing attendance, and adding new beneficiaries. Now I am talking to the
Jharkhand government. In Jharkhand, Jharkhand
is this yellow state, one of the smallest states of India. It has about 30,000 square feet area, with forest coverage of one third, it is very rich in coal,
iron ore, limestone, copper, uranium and gold. Population is 33 million. But the BPL population is, BPL means Below Poverty Line
population, is 14 million. So the government welfare
scheme in Jharkhand is NREGA, National Social
Security Assistance, food security, scholarships,
mid-day meal to students, Indira Awaas Yojana and so many, many more schemes are there. But government was anxious
in 2010, how to bring the administrative
efficiency in the department, and how to make financial social inclusion of some of the persons like
rickshaw pullers, beggars, transitory residents, disabled,
orphans, displaced people, how to make these people, bring these people in the mainstream. And how to get online evidence of the benefits passing
on to the resident. Then Aadhaar came in 2010, Jharkhand government signed
MOU in 2010, and after signing, the Aadhaar enrollment
started in September 2010. As on date, 100% people of
Jharkhand has been enrolled, all have got Aadhaar, and data digitization is 100% in all schemes. After data digitization, a resident data hub has been established, and they have floated
Aadhaar-based mobile applications for service delivery. This is one of the
screenshot of NREGA wages. The NREGA means guaranteed wage scheme for the workers of Jharkhand. 98% people have enrolled
for Aadhaar platform, they are getting their wages
through a simple Micro-ATM. A person goes to the Micro-ATM, which has inbuilt biometric device, he authenticates himself, that yes, I am the
person who I claim to be. Thereafter he gets his
wages from that platform. And this small device is connected to the server of the bank, then it is connected to the
server of the government. So government knows that
this much wages I have paid. Bank knows that this much
transactions have occurred. And the person has got the money. All three things are going seamlessly. This is a kit of India Post. India Post is one of the departments which is also making the
financial transactions for not only wages,
social security pension, and so many schemes. And it has cost of only $200. It has one tab, one iris device, tab with biometric device,
this Bluetooth printer, and after that a person authenticates, after authentication, this
kind of transaction places, this is approval of the transaction, and thereafter he gets money. Similarly, attendance scheme. Many government officers
of India are here, they are experiencing their attendance. Attendance system is running
in government departments, including Jharkhand government. In attendance also, just you
give your last four digits, or first four digits or six
digits of the Aadhaar number, and thereafter put your finger, your Aadhaar is deduplicated, and after that it is authenticated. After authentication your
opening time and closing time and how much time you
have been in the office, every record is there. This authentication is occurring with help of the iris devices also, other kind of biometric
devices are also there. For mid-day meal. Mid-day meal also one of
the scheme like US schools. In school, children they got lunch. In India also, a lot of
schools run by the government are granting them mid-day meal. For this purpose,
government was ensuring that whether the teacher is actually present to teach those students,
educate those students. Number two, whether the students are
actually getting those meals. These two things were
required to be ensured. For that purpose, first of all teacher
goes for authentication. That means he’s present. He’s imparting education, this
is teacher’s authentication, and after that student comes
here, student authenticates, and what he’s getting, these
are the menu card of his meal. Whether he’s getting this
amount of food or not, and after going through this
food, he gets a green signal. That means he has got the food. That means, whatever
quantity, quality is stated, that quantity and quality of food that student is getting
or not, that is ensured. Similarly, in food security, a person goes to the ration shop, he authenticates his fingerprint, and thereafter he gets the menu of what are the list of items, food items. What you want to select. After selecting that, out
of his total due quantity, he can select whatever he likes. He can take entire quantity, he can take the parcel quantity, and after selecting the quantity, he will get through the
electronic weigh scale his share of food items. So now the question is, what
we have achieved in Jharkhand? What was the outcome of
this Aadhaar project? How successful it has been? It has been very successful for social and financial inclusion. Aadhaar camps were set up for
rickshaw pullers separately, beggars separately, displaced and disabled
persons at their locations, and their data were collected. Their Aadhaar were delivered and thereafter their accounts were opened. In India there is one scheme, JAM. J means Jan Dhan. Jan Dhan means financial inclusion. A means Aadhaar, and M means mobile connection. These three things are the JAM, is the primary project of
the Government of India, which includes social
and financial inclusion of all the residents of Jharkhand. And after that, government
benefits are reaching directly in the hands of the people,
there is no middleman, no proof of leakages in the process, online real-time transactions is going on. As per the report of Jharkhand government, 25% of fake and duplicate
data has been removed, resulting into saving in
the subsidy of 250 millions. 250 millions subsidy saving means, it is not that government
is saving that amount, they again included
some more beneficiaries using that amounts saving, and they also enhanced the benefits of the existing beneficiaries. And thereafter, government
officials are coming in time, they have their ability to know the senior officers
who are coming in time, who are not coming in time, that attendance system in Jharkhand has been linked to their payment system. Payment system means
the salary disbursement. So if you are late by say 30 hours in a month, you’ll get the reduced salary. That has been linked in Jharkhand, ensuring the transparency
by the government. And what was the impact of this thing? This is the last very
important thing for Jharkhand. What was the impact? Impact is empowering residents. In Jharkhand there was one
more important problem, that ladies and gents, both are working, but gents is getting the
wages of ladies also. Ladies are working, but they are not getting
the benefits of their work. They are not getting their wages. For that purpose, if the lady is
authenticating her biometric, at a place of authentication, her wages cannot be taken by her husband. Only she can take,
empowerment of that resident. And then, mobility and
convenience comes in. How it is mobility and convenience? In India, resident of one state goes to another part of the country. And there again he is
asked for a new identity. But Aadhaar is universal
identity for entire country. So he can go anywhere in
India with only one Aadhaar, and thereafter he can get
jobs, he can be self-employed, he can do whatever
business he wants to do. Second part is acceptability. If you are booking tickets
online, give your Aadhaar number, it is accepted. iF you are applying for
passport, give your Aadhaar, go to the passport center,
authenticate yourself, you are verified. If you are filing online
income tax returns, then also you put your Aadhaar, you need not file a
signed copy of Aadhaar, that is your digital identity. Coming to second part, the impact. How it has transformed the Jharkhand. Jharkhand now is the most
emerging state in India. In India, GDP rate has increased from 4.8% in 2010 to 8.45% in 2014. That means it is just doubled. Again, the child mortality
rate has come down from 4.1% to 3.6%. It has empowered the
women, as we have told, that NREGA wages, national
guarantee wages program, each being taken by the woman herself, through biometric authentication. Coming to financial inclusion, it was a big hurdle for the
poor people to go to the bank, open a bank account, because of two problems. Number one, they were not
having the identity card. They were not having sufficient money required for opening a bank account. First problem was identity problem, this problem has resolved
by issuing Aadhaar. After getting Aadhaar, Aadhaar is universal identity in India, so identity problem is solved. Second problem is getting the money. Government introduced Jan
Dhan scheme, which means you can open account in
any bank at zero balance. No amount is required. That means, all the excluded
people, outreach people, were included in the system
in financial transactions. Secondly, it is doorstep banking. It is not required that
you visited the bank. You give a call, a small biometric device
will come to your doorstep, they will authenticate your self, they will have file your data, and thereafter they will
open the account instantly at your doorstep. You need not go to the bank,
bank will come to your door. Not only for opening the account,
for disbursing money also. Pragya Kendra in Jharkhand,
there is one name Pragya Kendra. Pragya Kendra is citizen service center. Citizen service center
has been established, which will deliver at your village, at your residence. And thereafter administrative discipline. Once the biometric
attendance was implemented by Jharkhand government, the habit of coming in time
to the office has improved. Everybody is coming in time,
they are going at time, leaving office at time, and by that the administrative
efficiency has also improved. Availability of data in a standard format. Most important part long
term impact is data. Now Jharkhand has a
State Resident Data Hub. That State Resident Data Hub has 33 million data. And this 33 million data can be deduplicated, authenticated, and can be made available for any scheme. This data is more important
from the point of view of not only their houses,
for business intelligence. Business intelligence means, I want to know that one person, how much benefit he’s taking. How much government benefit he’s taking. And second is of impact analysis. After getting this data, after getting so much benefit, whether really he has
improved his lifestyle or not? I have given $1000,
government has given $1000, what use to that person? Really whether there is any improvement in the lifestyle or not? That is now measured, that is
really measured in Jharkhand, which was not possible in the
absence of a central data hub. And last one is building trust between government and public. Normally it’s the
problem of the government that nobody trusts the government. That’s the one of the points. But after getting entire amount, removing fakes and
duplicates, removing leakages, and getting entire money in their hands, the public is now more
trusting the government. Government, government officials, their entire machinery are trusted. And by this way, government has
improved a lot in Jharkhand. The service delivery has improved, their administrative
efficiency has improved, their way of working has improved, and indirectly, it has given process re-engineering of entire department by
linking all the databases, making a common platform of Aadhaar, and then connecting each data to other. So this was, in summary, the
Jharkhand State database. Thank you very much. Any questions? (applause) Yeah, there. – [Audience member] I have two questions. One is data security, what are the steps being
taken in that aspect? And second is in terms of
healthcare service generally, how is Aadhaar doing anything, because that’s my area of interest. So I’m curious to see, you’re talking about
financial independence and access to banking and other things, but in terms of healthcare
service delivery, is there anything that Aadhaar is doing? – First question is data security. Data security means data
at the time of input, data at the time of transiting, and data at the place of warehouse. Number one, when we are collecting data, that data is collected and
kept in encrypted form. The person who is punching the data, even he has not got any access to remove, he has not got access to update or delete the data. This data is encrypted and
goes directly to our server, that is known as the CIDR, and with a key, that is public
key, it is opened there. That means, first one is,
that data at the time of input and at transmitting
the data, it is secure. In transmitting there is one more factor, that the entire data is
secured by way of transmitting through a Secure File
Transfer Protocol, SFTP, okay. After going to our database, again the data is, after deduplication, and making a unique
Aadhaar, a 12-digit number, it is kept in the data center. Our data centers, our data warehouse, are equipped in such a manner that they will not give
the data to any person, unless the person, resident itself agrees to share the data. That means, if I am the resident, if I do not give my
consent to share the data, my data cannot be shared with anyone. That means if you want
the service delivery, for using Aadhaar, you give your consent by way of biometric or your physical form, whatever you like. That means data is secured, no doubt. Second part is that how
it is going to be linked with the health services. In India also, there is one service, that is national service, health service, so I have not mentioned here, that is NRHM, National
Rural Health Mission. National Rural Health
Mission has integrated a lot of resident data with Aadhaar. What a simple thing they have to do, that any agency who wants
to get these things, he had to become, sign an agreement with Unique Identification
Authority of India, becoming Authentication User Agency. In short it is known as AUA. If you become AUA, then that data can be shared only if the resident agrees to it. Once you get the data, that means, what are the benefits? You need not punch the
data, name, address, photograph, gender,
etc., you need not punch. And you will ensure that the
benefit accrues to that person, and that is the unique benefit. I hope I have satisfied. – [Audience member] How is the GDP of, what is the linkage between
the GDP going from four– – That’s a very good question. That if the people are empowered, that means money flows directly
in the hands of the person, their purchasing power increases. And purchasing power increases, that means production increases. Production increases
means, the GDP increases. First thing. Second thing is that,
other than that also, that if the entire money
goes directly to the system, in a transparent money,
there is no black money. Black money doesn’t add to the GDP, and if black money is not
there, it is white money, it is all together adding to our economy. – [Audience member] Do you have some idea about how much money has
been disbursed between– – I have just told that
in one year analysis, 325 million has been
saved, and saved means, that has been again
circulated into the economy. And circulation means GDP is growing. – [Audience Member] Good morning, (mumbles) country has smaller states. But I have received some query, maybe I don’t have the knowledge, or I want to get the experience. You have said it’s related
to the Jharkhand development, it has gone to the development
of the Jharkhand state. Now I want to just know
from you, what is the, whether any studies have been carried out, what kind of development
index that has been taken. That is very important for
measuring the development. So what are the development
index that have been taken? Whether any studies has been done, with respect to development index. And there are two kinds of development, one is absolute, one is relative. So you have focused on Jharkhand, that can be absolute development. But there can be relative
with all the states. Aadhaar is implemented all
throughout the country, so in all the other states what has been the development index, and what are the relative development. So whether any studies have been done. This was the number one question. Number two was related to what he asked. Like I have not been able to realize how Aadhaar has been able to lower the child mortality rate. Child mortality rate has decreased all throughout the country. But how Aadhaar has helped that, in the particular state of Jharkhand? And there was a line that
there is no data duplication, as you said, but any software program, has a statistical analysis and having chances of data duplication. And in Aadhaar software
that has been developed, so far it is a 1% loss. So 1% data has been duplicated, so the problem with, like here, what is the way ahead to
reduce that one percent? – First of all, I don’t know what is your
source of 1% duplicate data. There is no source, we do
not know 1% data duplication. – [Audience Member] It was a disagreement between you and me, I
can show that the data– – Okay, if it is so,
please show me, but so far, we have not gone through
any 1% data duplicate. Of course, this is known as
the true match and false match, the true match has been
estimated to be 0.01%, but in fact it never happened. It was estimated that
there may be duplicates, but it never happened, number one part. Second part is, second
part of your question is, that a study, a task force, under the
chairmanship of Mr. Nandan Nilekani has studied the benefits
and savings of Aadhaar– – [Audience member] No, I’m
talking about development index. – I am coming to that point. Please listen to me, and then that task force has shown the development matrix, they have just now, a few days
back, submitted one report, and they have shown the matrix, how it is going to add in the economy. In that itself they have projected that, my colleague is here, in DBTL itself, a lot of savings have happened. And once the savings happened,
and it comes to the economy, naturally there is development. Number one part, and that
data is not right now with me, I can show you just
after this peer-to-peer. That is online available, I can show you, that that is linked to the
development of the country, data tells you. The second part is that, how the child mortality rate has improved? That child mortality rate is also related to the nutrition fact. If a person doesn’t have money,
he cannot feed the children. Secondly, if he sends to the school, he doesn’t get the improved quality meal, he doesn’t have the nutrition healthy. So these two things were
ensured by the government, by giving direct money in
the hands of the person, and by that way, it is also adding to the
child mortality rate. You are right that it
is not the only fact, there are several other factors also, but it is also one of the factors. – [Audience member] The development index that we’re talking about is
the financial development, not the real thing is. – Other than financial impact
also, other impact are also, quantitative as well as qualitative, I can show you that report
after this peer-to-peer. Yeah, please. – [Audience member] We have here that we have a big election
problem, due to identity cards. Because we don’t have
reliable identity cards, or many proper cards
which are election cards, are certifiable easily. So one of the options for
that kind of government is to use electronic ID cards. Have you used this, do you have experience on linking the ID card to the election, are schemes or not? – Yeah, election also, in
Jharkhand it was linked, and 75% of residents have linked, but the problem remained that later on there was a court case in Supreme Court, and thereafter it was stopped. Since it is sub judice, on certain issues, it is not now being implemented
by the Election Commission. – [Audience member] What
was the problem, sir? – They had a different problem, that some, just I have told that 98,
99% are linking Aadhaar, they are linking, they are happy they are
getting the benefits, but some people, some people or some group of people, are not satisfied, they are telling that
they have a privacy issue, how they can share their data? Though I have told repeatedly that only with the consent
of the person data is shared, but still they have challenged this action in the Supreme Court. And till matter is decided
by our Supreme Court, it is withheld. – [Audience member] Can
you give us some magnitude about the authentication cost
involved with the system, and who bears the cost? – Authentication cost
is, if I tell in dollars, it will be 0.0001 dollar. Coming to the Indian
rupee, that is 0.05 rupee. But right now, it is
free to all departments till 2015 December. After that government has to decide whether they will take any
charge or it is free of cost. – [Audience member] Thank
you for your presentation. It’s interesting to
hear about this program. You mentioned that this
is a voluntary program, you don’t have to choose to enlist in it. Anyhow there’s been
almost 100% compliance. I was trying to think of India, that voluntary program
where there is compliance, there’s usually not 100% compliance, when there is, it’s a matter of luck. So in that case, just obviously
going through the design, there is going to be a gap for those who didn’t wish to opt in. I was wondering if you
could maybe articulate what are some of the reasons that people are giving for choosing to not be part of this system. So privacy was one that came up, are there other points
that people bring up, can you just explain that side of it? – Yeah, since it is a voluntary program, we are not telling anybody compulsorily to come to our enrollment program. They can come voluntarily
and enroll their selves. But the strength is that 98% people have shown their willingness. In Jharkhand adult persons have come, they have got the identity card. That means it is well
accepted by general public. But a few persons do not like Aadhaar, they are not coming to it. It is upon those people, only one reason is that,
I have a privacy issue. Though government time and again assured their privacy problem, that without your consent
data will not be shared, but they are still not convinced. Okay, so they are not
coming to this system. But I think that if they will go through the benefits of Aadhaar, then they will definitely
come to the system. My colleague Alok is here– – [Audience Member] I
would like to comment on this particular aspect. – One minute, my colleague Alok is here, I am just mentioning his
problem, that is DBT. That means, if you want LPG subsidy, it is already, you can
get in bank account also, you can get through Aadhaar
Payment Bridge also. If you go for direct bank account it takes five days to clear. If you go through Aadhaar system, it is transferred instantly, in a day, or next day you definitely will get it. So, easy and convenient way of
transferring of the benefits is the major strength of this program. That’s why it’s accepted this much. – [Colleague] One of the reasons why people were not
willing to join Aadhaar, was the speed of the implementation
of the Aadhaar project. This program was actually conceptualized and formulated in 2009, if
I’m not wrong, 2009 or 10. And if you see the
population of this country, it’s 1.2 billion people. So you had to enroll every
person in this program to get the exact benefit or more benefit we wanted to provide. So what happened when we
started implementing our scheme, many of the people might not be knowing that in India we have dual pricing in provision of liquefied petroleum gas. So we are providing subsidized
LPG up to certain point, and beyond that we are
providing LPG at market price. What was happening earlier, we were providing the subsidized
LPG at the subsidized cost. So there was a dual pricing. And that has motivated some of the people to divert the subsidized
LPG for unauthorized uses. We wanted to curb this malpractice. And we found that if we are able to provide LPG at market price and provide subsidy directly
into the bank account, then it will be a kind of
uniform pricing in the market. And that will eliminate the diversion. The biggest question was what
should be the identity number which should be linked
with the person to prove that he is the actual person
eligible for the benefit. Aadhaar is the only number which
is enrolled in our country, which has got unique identity. So no person can have two Aadhaars. It has got 99.99% accuracy. So we decided to link this
Aadhaar number with LPG subsidy. What happened, that because at that time when we started this scheme, the Aadhaar enrollment was very less. So people had some resistance
that if it is made mandatory, then they will be denied subsidy if they are not having Aadhaar. So that became a major factor and people started going to
court and different forums and saying that there is a privacy issue. Actually there is no privacy
issue as such, you see, it is only resistance
because they were thinking that they would be denied subsidy, so they started opposing this program. Now because the 98% enrollment
has already been completed, so there is a chance that
this issue of right to privacy and other things will die out. Now the matter is still
pending in the court. So the government has
taken a different approach. So what we have done, we said okay, fine, if you are saying Aadhaar
should not be made mandatory, we will keep it voluntary. So people who are having Aadhaar number, they can link Aadhaar with the subsidy, if they are not having Aadhaar number they can simply provide
the bank account details. So we are providing directly
subsidy to the bank account. From the administration perspective, having Aadhaar linked is more important because it is giving you
more accurate results and also ensuring that the eligible beneficiaries
are only getting the subsidy. But then from the people’s perspectives, because they were not
having Aadhaar initially, we decided let’s give them
the second option also, so that they can also join the scheme. Gradually now we are asking
people to shift to Aadhaar, because the Aadhaar legated
money transfer process is more simple than the money transfer process
in absence of the Aadhaar. Second issue with that, you can have two bank accounts, but you can’t have two Aadhaars. So if you are linking your
money with the Aadhaar, you are ensuring that the subsidy is going
to the right person. But a person can link two bank accounts to two LPG connections, and by that way he can
manipulate the system. So we are trying hard, and people are coming forward, in fact. That right to privacy issue is dying out, except that it is pending in the court. – [Audience member] Why only
12 digits have been taken? Why not more than 12,
why not less than 12? – 12 digit is not required. The question that why it is 12 digits. 12 digit also is not required. If you are projecting a
population up to 100 billion, 100 billion, I’m not
talking about 1.25 billion, then 10 digit number is required, because that is
permutations, combinations, so many things are
there, that can be done. But two check digits has
been kept in the Aadhaar, that’s why it is 12 digits. – [Audience member] With
regard to security issues, my question is, do you
have so far identity theft? And the second question is, you mentioned that all your data are stored in the data warehouse in India. So that raises the question of the security of the data warehouse. So are you thinking about cloud computing, or something like doing backup on machine? – Okay, number one question
is that your data security. Data security it’s in warehouse, is that, that is kept at a cloud. That cloud has 5000 servers. And secondly, a backup is
also kept somewhere else. So that means data is
not going to be, done. Second part is whether
there was any theft or not. Till now, from 2011, we are using the authentication services. Till now there is no theft
of any authentication data. Is it okay, or any– – [Audience member] All your
data are in India, right? – Yeah, all are in India, in India only. But we are not hiring any
cloud, we have our own cloud. We are not hiring, if you
understood, if you hire, then some private agency have access, but we are not hiring,
we have our own cloud. – [Audience member] My question is, if you want to have a little security, you may probably think to
have some more servers, somewhere outside India. – [Other member] – Not necessarily. – No, that is not required,
that is not necessary. What is required, I agree with you, that you cannot keep it at one location. Yes, we have kept at two, three locations. We have kept at two, three locations, we have not kept at one location. – [Audience member] The requirement is you first have data at minimum four places and two different geological
areas, that is geo-fault areas, earthquake design planning, as we call it. So two different earthquake regions, if at one region the data is destroyed, the other region is safe. So that is the requirement. – Any other question? – [Audience member] If your
privacy and security breach– – If we have a limit, we
will cross that, anywhere… – [Audience member] Simple
question, what does Aadhaar mean? – Very good question, I should have told you
that at the beginning. Aadhaar means, aadhaar is an Indian word, in Hindi, aadhaar means base of platform. Initially Government
thought that this platform is going to be used for all
government welfare schemes. Therefore the name was Aadhaar,
and this is continuing. – [Audience member] Two questions. The redundancy in the servers, how is that kept at the CIDR,
main lines or satellite? – The data transmission is
through secure leased line only. – [Audience member] Secure? – Leased line. Leased line, dedicated line. – [Audience Member] So a land line. – Not land, that doesn’t mean land line, that can be through
satellite, from a point. – [Audience member] And is the service– – Yeah, encrypted. Totally encrypted data is transferred. At any point, even authentication happens, that is also encrypted. – [Audience member] Don’t
you have any tensions with religious organizations because of this identification process? Because in my country we
have kind of such situations and some religious organizations they protest against such identification because they say it can like, influence, seriously. – In India we have Hindu,
Muslim, Sikh, Christian, and so many religions. And everybody cooperated with us. And our data collection person
were also given the training, how to handle the situation. When a lady comes in a
burka, being a Muslim lady, the operator was told
that ask her politely, or if husband is there,
describe how it will happen. She has to open her
burka, and show her face, then only face can be scanned then only iris can be taken, and after explaining, they were themselves
doing all these things. So it is well accepted in India, none of the religions has made any problem for data collection. – [Coordinator] You have any questions? – [Audience member] Just one
last one, it’s rolled out, it basically started in 2010. Moving today, is it ahead of schedule, according to schedule, how is this viewed across the country, are you pleased with the results so far, did you expect to be here two years ago? – Sure, our target to
complete Aadhaar was 2017. And we are going to complete
the data collection portion in January 2016. So that means we are
well ahead of our target. We are satisfied with our data collection. – [Colleague] The only issue was, that initially when this Aadhaar
concept was conceptualized, we were not thinking about
linking so many things with Aadhaar. So as the process goes on we are finding that more schemes can
be linked with Aadhaar to provide the benefit. – [Coordinator] Any final questions? – Okay, thank you everybody,
for your patient hearing. (applause)

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